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Extraction optimization, Total Phenolic-Flavonoids content, HPLC-DAD finger printing, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of Chinese folklore Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Mey

posted on 2023-01-24, 07:12 authored by Muhammad Qasim Nasar, Tanzeel Zohra, Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ovais, Ikram Ullah, Muhammad Ayaz, Mohammad Zahoor, Zabta Khan Shinwari

Abstract Plants from genus Ephedra are commonly used by the Chinese people as folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. The current study was designed to explore the ethno-pharmacological based pharmacological potentials of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A. Mey. (E. intermedia). Plant aerial parts were extracted using ten solvent systems with increasing order of polarity. Samples were analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, HPLC-DAD analysis, antibacterial, antifungal, HepG2 cell line cytotoxicity, hemolysis and antioxidant potentials following standard procedures. Highest percent extract recovery was observed in Eth+WT (25.55 % w/w) solvent system. Flavonoid and phenolic contents were higher in chloroform and Met+WT fractions respectively. Considerable antibacterial activity was shown by Eth+Met extract against B. subtilis and K. pneumonia (MIC of 11.1μg/mL for each). Eth extract exhibited high antifungal activity against A. fumigates (15±0.31 mm DIZ). Met+WT extract showed significant cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 of 13.51+0.69 μg/mL. Substantial free radical scavenging activity (74.9%) was observed for Met+Eth extract. In the current study, several solvent systems were used for more effective extraction of fractions and can be useful in the isolation of phytochemicals. Various fractions exhibited considerable antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. Biological potentials of E. intermedia signify its potential uses in microbial, cancer and degenerative disorders and thus warrant further detailed studies.