Immunogenicity Characterization of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ABSTRACT Introduction: Immunogenicity has emerged as a challenge in the development of vaccines against coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Immunogenicity is a determinant of the efficacy and safety of vaccines. This systematic review and associated meta-analysis summarized and characterized the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: Relevant RCTs were systematically sourced from different medical databases in August 2021. The risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of 2,310 papers, 16 RCTs were eligible for review. These RCTs involved a total of 26,698 participants (15,292 males and 11,231 females). The pooled results showed a significant difference in the geometric mean titer between the vaccinated and control groups in favor of the vaccine group after 1 and 2 months of follow-up, for the young age group (18 - < 55y), and with different doses (P < 0.001). The difference in the older age group (>55y) was insignificant (P = 0.24). The seroconversion rate of spike neutralizing antibodies favored the vaccine groups 1 or 2 months after vaccination (P < 0.001). The seroconversion rate of the vaccine group was significantly different (P < 0.001) from that of the control group. Conclusions: Vaccination elicits immunogenicity in the follow-up period for all age groups and at low and large doses. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive vaccines currently being offered. A boost dose has been asserted for the elderly.