Mansoa alliacea extract improves the growth performance and innate immune response of Arapaima gigas challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and handling stress
ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Mansoa alliacea hydroalcoholic extracts on growth, blood and immune parameters of Arapaima gigas. Fish were fed for 30 days with diets enriched with 0, 4, 8, and 12 g kg-1 of M. alliacea hydroalcoholic extract and subjected to infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and handling stress. Fish fed with 8 g kg-1 of extract showed significant increase in final weight, specific growth rate and feed efficiency when compared to the other groups. Glucose, triglycerides, total proteins, and globulins increased significantly in fish fed with 8 g kg-1 of extract, whereas albumin decreased. The number of thrombocytes increased significantly with the dietary supplementation of 8 and 12 g kg-1 of extract. After the challenge with A. hydrophila and handling stress, fish fed with 8 g kg-1 of extract had significantly higher levels of glucose, globulins, and albumins, and fish fed with 8 and 12 g kg-1 of extract showed an increment of respiratory burst. Triglyceride levels dropped significantly in fish fed with 4, 8, and 12 g kg-1 of extract, whereas the number of neutrophils increased, and total thrombocytes, leukocytes and lymphocytes were higher in fish fed with 12 g kg-1 of extract. Dietary supplementation with M. alliacea extract at 8 g kg-1 was efficient in improving the growth and innate immunity of A. gigas, being potentially useful in fish farming to control the development of A. hydrophila infections.