Multimodal assessment of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine differences between fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) findings in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), comparing these with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Methods: Ten consecutive patients with chronic CSC (19 eyes; 7 men; mean age, 50.7 ± 8.4 years) underwent multimodal evaluation that included FA, ICG, and OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Changes such as hyperfluorescence (caused by increased transmission of the normal choroidal fluorescence, staining, or "pooling") and hypofluorescence (caused by a blockage or vascular filling defect) were evaluated in the early (4 min), middle (4-8 min) and late (>8 min) angiography phases and compared to OCT findings. Results: Bilateral disease was present in nine of the 10 patients. Areas of discontinuation or attenuation of the hyporeflective layer of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) on OCT were observed at the same locations as hyperfluorescent angiography window defects on FA and ICG within examination phases. In areas of serous or RPE detachment, the hyperfluorescence pattern was similar on FA and ICG. However, ICG demonstrated areas of hyperfluorescence secondary to choriocapillaris hyperpermeability, with no corresponding change on FA in 12 (70%) of the 19 eyes. This finding was more evident in the middle and late phases of the examinations and there was no evident change in retinal architecture on OCT in these hyperpermeable choroidal regions. Conclusion: In patients with chronic CSC, ICG may reveal choroidal abnormalities that are not evident on FA. This finding may help optimize the monitoring and treatment of CSC.