Quick Test for Detecting Glyphosate-Resistant Ryegrass Seeds
ABSTRACT: The commercialization of ryegrass seeds with the presence of resistant biotypes is a serious issue that increses the dispersion of resistance to new areas without this problem. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a quick test to detect susceptible and resistant seeds to the glyphosate herbicide in order to identify contaminated seed lots with glyphosate resistance. Three experiments were carried out, one in greenhouse and the other two in the seed laboratory. First, the resistance factor (RF) was determined by a dose-response curve experiment in biotypes suspected to be resistant and susceptible to glyphosate. Then, the germination test was conducted with the selected biotypes under increasing glyphosate rates (0, 3.5, 6.9, 13.9, 27.8, 55.5, 111, 222, 445, 890, and 1,780 mg a.e. L-1), as the second experiment. The third experiment was made to verify the methodological efficiency of the germination test with glyphosate to identify different contamination ratios (0, 4, 12, 36, and 100%) of the resistant biotype in the seed lot. The different levels of susceptibility of the biotypes to glyphosate were confirmed by the RF of 154.7 based on C50. Germination of the susceptible biotype was inhibited more than 99% by the rate of 127 mg a.e. L-1, while the resistant biotype was a little affected. The germination test with 127 mg a.e. L-1 of glyphosate showed contaminations of 2, 5, 19, 39, and 86% in lots with 0, 4, 12, 36, and 100% of contaminated seeds, respectively. This methodology can detect glyphosate susceptible and resistant seeds and identify contaminated seed lots with resistant glyphosate biotypes.