Right Ventricle Involvement by Glycogen Storage Cardiomyopathy (PRKAG2): Standard and Advanced Echocardiography Analyses
Abstract Background PRKAG2 syndrome is a rare, early-onset autosomal dominant inherited disease. We aimed to describe the right ventricle (RV) echocardiographic findings using two and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) modalities including myocardial deformation indices in this cardiomyopathy. We also aimed to demonstrate whether this technique could identify changes in RV function that could distinguish any particular findings. Methods Thirty patients with genetically proven PRKAG2 (R302Q and H401Q), 16 (53.3%) males, mean age 39.1 ± 15.4 years, underwent complete echocardiography examination. RV-focused, 4-chamber view was acquired for 2D and 3D measurements. Student’s t or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare numerical variables between 2 groups, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Twelve patients (40%) had a pacemaker implanted for 12.4 ± 9.9 years. RV free wall mean diastolic thickness was 7.9 ± 2.9 mm. RV 4-chamber longitudinal strain (RV4LS), including the free wall and interventricular septum, was –17.3% ± 6.7%, and RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) was −19.1% ± 8.5%. The RVFWLS apical ratio measured 0.63 ± 0.15. Mean RV 3D ejection fraction (EF) was 42.6% ± 10.9% and below normal limits in 56.7% of patients. Positive correlation occurred between RV 3DEF, RV4LS, and RVFWLS, especially for patients without a pacemaker (p = 0.006). Conclusion RV involvement in PRKAG2 syndrome is frequent, occurring in different degrees. Echocardiography is a valuable tool in detecting RV myocardial abnormalities in this condition. The use of 2D RV4LS, RVFWLS, and 3DEF offers reliable indicators of RV systolic dysfunction in this rare, challenging cardiomyopathy.