Teaching strategies for clinical reasoning in Brazilian medical schools - an integrative review
Abstract: Introduction: Clinical reasoning is considered one of the main skills that must be developed by medical students, as it allows the establishment of diagnostic hypotheses and directs investigative and diagnostic strategies using a rational approach. Although educators have traditionally focused the teaching method on the analytical model, many medical professors face the challenge in their daily lives of finding new strategies to help their students develop clinical reasoning. Objective: To carry out an integrative literature review to identify the strategies used in the teaching-learning process of clinical reasoning in Brazilian medical schools. Method: The methodology used consists of six steps: 1. creation of the research question; 2. definition of inclusion and exclusion criteria; 3. list of information to be extracted; 4. evaluation of included studies; 5. interpretation of results and 6. presentation of the review. Results: Most studies indicate that the teaching of clinical reasoning is carried out through discussions of clinical cases, incidentally, in different disciplines or through the use of active methodologies such as PBL, TBL and CBL. Only three studies presented at conferences disclosed experiences related to the implementation of a mandatory curricular discipline specifically aimed at teaching clinical reasoning. The teaching of clinical reasoning is prioritized in internships in relation to the clinical and pre-clinical phases. Final considerations: There are few studies that analyze how clinical reasoning is taught to medical students in Brazilian medical schools. Although more studies are needed, we can observe the lack of theoretical knowledge about clinical reasoning as one of the main causes of the students’ difficulty in developing clinical reasoning.